Dr. Lori Desautels 317-207-0336 brain@revelationsineducation.com

Neuroscience of Learning/ Dr. Judy Willis Hand-Outs for School of Education Conference, “Thinking Beyond the Boundaries Through Social and Emotional Learning”

The Neuroscience of Learning
&
Sustained Attentive Focus

J&J_PRE_CON_Handout-2.pdfpresented by

Neuroscience of Emotion and Learning &
The Video Game Model for
Motivation, Mindset, and Memory

J&J_PRE_CON_Handout-2.pdfpresented by

Judy Wills, M.D., M.Ed. Marian University
www.RADTeach.com Sept 15, 2012
jwillisneuro@aol.com 8:30-10:00

Goals

• What motivates learners to try their best? What factors negatively affect student motivation?

• How can education emulate the qualities of the most engaging video games for memory and motivation?

Key Understandings About Emotion &
Learning from Neuroscience

• Emotions influence where new information is processed in the brain. For learning to become memory it must be directed through the emotional filter (amygdala) along the route to the reflective, higher brain – the prefrontal cortex.

• High stress results in information transport to the lower, reactive brain where the behavioral responses are limited to fight/flight/freeze.

• The brain is “wired” to stop expending effort when experience predicts a low prob¬ability of success.

• Motivation from positive experiences is necessary to overcome the brain’s resistance to applying effort when it has low expectation of reward.

• Expectation of pleasure motivates attention, effort and memory. Dopamine release “fuels” pleasure.

• Students are more motivated when they WANT to LEARN what they HAVE to learn.

• Goals that are clear and desirable promote attention, motivation, effort, and reduce stress.

• Effort increases when there is awareness of one’s incremental progress toward a desired goal.

How the Brain Learns – an Overview

The Brain’s Structures — Viewed from Left

How Emotion impacts the brain’s successful learning

Common teacher concern: “My students ‘act out’ or ‘zone out’ in class making it almost impos¬sible to teach! What can I do?”
This section answers the above question with information about attitude, the amygdala, and achievable challenge.

The Amygdala: The amygdala is a part of the limbic system that is found in the temporal lobe of the brain. The amygdala can be thought of as a “fork in the road” or a “switching station” on the way to the “thinking brain” (prefrontal cortex).
• After information passes through the RAS, it enters the amygdala. The amygdala then directs the information to one of two places.
• The information can be sent to either the lower REACTIVE brain or to the REFLECTIVE “thinking brain” (prefrontal cortex).
• In the reactive lower brain, information is responded to with an automatic fight, flight or freeze response.
• In the reflective “thinking brain” (prefrontal cortex) conscious thought, logic and judgment can be used to respond to new information.

What determines if the amygdala directs information to the reflective “thinking brain” (prefrontal cortex) or to the reactive lower brain?

When a person is in a state of high or sustained stress or fear:
• New information coming through the sensory intake areas of the brain cannot pass through the amygdala’s filter to gain access to the reflective prefrontal cortex.
• Incoming information is conducted to the lower, reactive brain.
• The lower, reactive brain has a limited set of behavior outputs: fight, flight, or freeze.
• Students during these states of stress-directed behavior may be misidentified as suffering from disorders i.e. ADHD, petit mal epilepsy (staring spells), oppositional-defiant syndrome.

Alternatively, if stress is reduced, and a person is in a relaxed and alert state, information can pass through the amygdala and on to the reflective “thinking brain” (prefrontal cortex) for long-term memory, executive function processing, and emotional self-control can over-ride the lower brain reactive impulses

How can the classroom climate be planned to:
1. anticipate and address potential stressors that can negatively impact learning and performance?
2. foster positive and supportive relationships?
3. promote expectations of success?
4. encourage purposeful participation and collaboration?

Causes of stress in school
• Fear of being wrong
• Feeling too embarrassed to speak in class, answer questions, or present their work to their peers
• Test-taking anxiety
• Physical and language differences
• Boredom from lack of stimulation due to prior mastery of the material or feeling that the information lacks personal relevance
• Frustration with material that exceeds a student’s foundational knowledge
• Feeling overwhelmed by the increased demands of each subsequent school year, and their in ability to organize their time to respond to these demands

Stress Factors
• Stress can cause behavior problems and obstruct learning.
• Participating in new learning requires students to take risks that are often beyond their comfort zones. Steps should be taken to reduce stress during these times.
• Before students can attend to higher-order thinking they must meet lower-level needs like survival and safety. Examples of survival needs experienced in school: thirst, hunger, clothes that don’t fit comfortably, and lack of sleep. Examples of safety needs experienced in school: illness, being physically injured, being insulted or emotionally hurt, and having ones property stolen or destroyed.
• Stress can reduce the ability of the hippocampus to effectively use working memory. Strategies can be promoted so students can build their stress escalation awareness and activate stress reduction practices

Promote Passage through Amygdala to PFC
Guide students to:
• monitor and control emotions
• reflect before acting on emotions
• experience control over sensory responsiveness (hearing a sound longer)
• visualization: imaginary bubble to deflect hurtful actions & words
• self-calm (deep-breath, observe themselves from “above”)
Learning how they think helps children develop more Reflective PFC control of over their Reactive lower brains

• Explain “Bad Behavior” does not mean they are Bad
• When you have strong negative emotions like fear, anxiety or a feeling of hopeless frustration, it puts your brain into survival mode. Your brain’s emotional response sends information into your lower reactive brain

The Power of the Video Game Model

What can video and computer games teach us about learning?

Video Game Model Includes:
Goal buy-in
Individualized achievable challenges
Frequent feedback
Awareness of incremental goal progress

The Brain Seeks Patterns and Pleasure

Video and computer games are compelling because they offer individualized achiev¬able challenges that are physiologically rewarded with the intrinsic satisfaction of achievement produced by the brain chemical, dopamine.
At the outset, a player is presented with a goal. The player begins at level one, and through trial and error (feedback) builds enough skills to ultimately pass level one.
The next level challenges the player’s newly developed skills, but ultimately, through sustained ef¬fort, practice, and persistence the player succeeds and continues to progress through the levels.
The player receives ongoing feedback and the dopamine boosting pleasure incremental goal progress – reaching the next level.
He/she feels the pride of know¬ing that their effort caused their success (intrinsic reinforcement).
The player then seeks the greater challenge of the next level so it can continue to experience the pleasure of dopamine reward.

D = DOPAMINE the Pleasure Promoter

Dopamine is usually thought of as a neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters are chemi¬cals in the brain that transmit signals between neurons (nerve cells). Neurotransmit¬ters allow for information to travel from neuron to neuron throughout the brain.

Dopamine, when released in amounts that exceed what is needed for carrying signals across synapses, travels throughout the brain. The extra dopamine now acts as a neurochemical with more widespread impact. Increased dopamine is associated with (it both increases and is increased by) pleasurable experiences and the anticipation of pleasurable experiences. Its release also increases focus, memory, and executive
function.

When dopamine levels go up, the following behaviors are more prominent:
• Pleasure
• Creativity
• Motivation
• Curiosity
• Persistence and perseverance

The following activities increase dopamine levels:
• Positive interactions with peers
• Enjoying music
• Being read to
• Acting kindly
• Expressing gratitude
• Humor
• Optimism
• Choice
• Movement
• Feeling the intrinsic satisfaction of achievement (achieving a challenge or making a correct prediction)

Video Game Model in the Classroom
• Goal buy-in
• Students work at their achievable challenge levels
• Frequent formative feedback
• Students recognize their incremental goal progress

Goal Buy-in – Personal Relevance

Why the Brain Needs Clear Goals

Strategies for helping students build personal relevance (and goal “buy-in”)

Examples of Personal Goal Relevance
• Show students how what they are about to study relates to their lives or the world around them. Watch a relevant video, such as those relating to math and science found on the http://www.thefutureschannel.com/
• Connect a unit with current events
• Read aloud something curious or interesting that relates to the topic at hand
• Before a lesson or unit, tell a narrative about the life of the author, scientist, historical figure, or mathematician when he/she was about the age of your students
• Personalize information by connecting the topic to an person or place relevant to students e.g. book author anecdote
• Discuss the “So what?” factor. Why should students WANT to know what you have to teach them? You can discuss with students how information connects the “real world” or to their lives.
• How they are going to use the new information after you teach it to them? Are they going to discuss it with a classmate, or teach it to younger students?

“Talking Back to the Text” is an interactive reading strategy that helps students become personally engaged with what they are reading. Students write questions prompts on post-it notes that they can insert into their text. If students own the books or prefer have access to computers and classroom technology, they can post their responses on a class wiki or blog as they do a reading assignment at home – to increase engagement and accountability.
Some questions are prediction questions the student will answer before reading. Other questions and prompts will be answered while the student is reading

• Before reading the students writes and answers prediction questions:
o What do I think you’ll be telling me?
o I already know things about YOU so I predict…..

• During reading students can complete the following questions or prompts:
o You are similar to what I have learned before, because you remind me of…
o I would have preferred a picture of…(or sketch or download your own)
o I didn’t know that and I like what you have to say (or I’ll bet this will be on the test)
o I disagree
o This is not what I expected
o This gives me an idea
o I want to know more about this than you have to offer. I find out by…
o I know there is more than one way to interpret this information
o I won’t let you get away with anything, so I’ll check your source
o What clues do you have to help me answer the Big Question? Ah, this could be one right here.

• After reading the students use duplicate post-it prompts and can add to their earlier predictions

Achievable Challenge

Achievable challenge to reduce stress by reducing boredom and frustration and motivate perseverance and effort

Students are most motivated by the expectation of dopamine reward when they learn at their individualized levels of achievable challenge. Providing students with achievable challenges reduces the reactive states resulting from the stress of boredom or frustration and promotes the video game model of motivation.

An achievable challenge is one in which a student has the capacity (or skills to develop the capacity) to meet an ambitious goal. An achievable challenge is therefore a challenge that exists within Vygotsky’s “zone of proximal development”.

As Goldilocks would say, the challenge is “not too hard, not too easy, but just right!” If a challenge is too easy a student will become bored, which leads to stress, and ultimately disengagement from learning. If a challenge is too difficult a student will experience frustration and hopelessness, which also lead to excessive stress. However, when facing an achievable challenge that is just within one’s reach, the student avoids detrimental states of stress, and the amygdala is able to pass information on to the prefrontal cortex.

In a “video game” model of teaching, all students would be learning in their personal zone of achievable challenge at all times. Students would be frequently assessed to determine their appropriate “zone”, they would set and reset goals throughout learning, and they would receive the individual support needed to overcome setbacks and obstacles.

Increasingly it is becoming possible for students to learn foundational facts at their individuated levels of achievable challenge via instruction through computer programs. While some students learn basic math facts from the computer within their personal zone of achievable challenge, their teacher can take on the role of facilitating projects requiring higher order thinking and collaboration.

Pre-Assessment for Achievable Challenge
The following pre-assessment techniques provide efficient diagnostic checks of student prior knowledge and misconceptions. This information guides any differentiated instruction/as¬sessment that may be needed.

K-W-L Chart

Prior to the introduction of a new topic or skill, ask students what they already Know (or think they know) about the topic or skill. These are recorded on a board or chart paper under the “K” column. (Sometimes, students make statements that are incorrect or reveal misconceptions.)
Secondly, ask them what they Want to know (or what questions they have) about the topic/skill. These are recorded under the “W” column. (Their questions often reveal inter¬ests or “hooks” to the topic. In some cases, their questions reveal misconceptions that will need to be addressed.)
As the lesson or unit proceeds, Learnings are summarized and recorded in the “L” column as they occur. (This provides an opportunity to go back and correct any misconcep¬tions that may have been initially recorded in the “K” column.)

Pre-assessments with noncredit self-graded quizzes: A pre-assessment quiz can be used to alert both the student and the teacher to what the student already knows about a topic. This gives an initial indi-cation of an individual students “zone”. The teacher may find out that a student is missing foundational skills that will be needed for the topic, or that the student already has a lot of knowl¬edge, and without some additional challenge the student may become bored and disengaged.
Incremental Progress Awareness
from Game Model to Classroom

Computer game model: give students the opportunity to recognize both the intrinsic pleasure of incremental progress (“I got it” experience) and the cause/effect that putting in the effort to prac-tice/review brings them progressively closer to success.
Students who feel alienated in school need additional support to regain their confidence and feel motivated towards reaching a challenging goal. If struggling academically has always been a source of disappointment for them, help students recall when they have been successful towards reaching a goal (e.g. music, sports, art, making friends, cooking something new, etc.).

Students should be made aware of the progress they are making towards a goal. In general we experience an intrinsic reward when we realize that we are making progress due to our practice and effort. Even noticing small changes can be helpful. For example, having students keep a graph of how their reading fluency improves depending on how much they practice can be very motivating.

Promote a growth mindset: People with a fixed mindset believe that people are born with a certain amount of intelligence and skill, and that is all we will ever get. Once we fail, there is no point in trying again, because we have reached our limit. Those with a growth mindset believe that people are given a certain amount of intelligence and skill, just as they have a certain body type, but that people have the potential to grow their intelligence and skill with hard work, just like a muscle. Those with a growth mindset are right, and the implications are enormous (Carol Dwerk 2007). Therefore, helping students learn from their mistakes, and bounce back from set-backs, is essential to moving students forward in their learning.

The video game model is promoted by frequent formative assessment and feedback and by student awareness of incremental goal progress.

• Increasing deficits in foundational knowledge reduce the possibility of achievable chal¬lenge. These deficits can result from a system of summative assessments not given until after units are taught without the cor¬rective feedback. This feedback and correction failure limits neural network preparation. Students cannot use faulty information successfully. These inadequate memory networks will not serve as patterns to link with subsequent new instruction.

• Ongoing formative assessments with feedback, reteaching, opportunities for self-corrections, and metacognition are needed for all students to build understanding and progress at achievable challenge levels of success.

Rubrics for incremental progress awareness

Analytic rubrics are consistent with the amygdala positive benefits of video game model of achievable challenge and incremental progress.
• Understand what is expected and how they can achieve steps of incremental progress along the way toward overall goal
• Provide students with informative feedback about their incremental goal progress
• Choice (a dopamine booster) of achievable challenge – where they will focus effort
• Develop metacognitive awareness so they can self-motivate (dopamine from intrinsic gratification)

Rubric Generator Websites
http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods-and-management/rubrics/4524.html#ixzz1d2xZeJck

http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php
http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/rubrics.htm
http://myt4l.com/index.php?v=pl&page_ac=view&type=tools&tool=rubricmaker

Effort=Progress to Goal Graphs
Help your students use graphs to see the connection between their work, practice, effort, and their progress Sample graphs: www.onlinecharttool.com

Summary: to promote a positive attitude so that information gets to the prefrontal cortex (PFC):
• Have students work in their zone of “achievable challenge”
• Make learning personalized
• Use curiosity promoting questions/demonstrations
• Teach students how to recognize their incremental progress towards a goal
• Help students link new input with prior knowledge, especially prior memories that have positive emotional associations

Links to the free resources below including multiple articles, videos, webinars, powerpoints, and free book chapters all available through my website www.RADTeach.com

TEDx Video Dr. Judy Willis Feb 1, 2012 http://bit.ly/wlxLIC Topic “From Neuroscience Lab to the Classroom”

Dr. Judy Willis Edutopia’s ‘Big Thinkers on Education’ http://www.edutopia.org/big-thinkers

Books by Judy Willis, M.D.

All ASCD books have several free chapters and downloadable study guides. Use
direct links from my website www.RADTeach.com or www.ASCD.org “publications”.

Research-Based Strategies To Ignite Student Learning: Insights from a Neurologist/Classroom Teacher, ASCD 2006

Teaching the Brain to Read: Strategies for Improving Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension ASCD 2008

Brain-Friendly Strategies for the Inclusion Classroom, ASCD 2007

Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results, ASCD 2010 Free chapters and study guide download at:
http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108073.aspx

Inspiring Middle School Minds: Gifted, Creative, Challenging. Great Potentials Press 2008

How Your Child Learns Best: Brain-Based Ways to Ignite Learning and Increase School Success. Foreword by Goldie Hawn. Sourcebooks 2008

Judy Wills, M.D., M.Ed. Marian University
www.RADTeach.com Sept 14, 2012
jwillisneuro@aol.com Keynote 5:30- 6:45

The confluence of research on learning from neuroscience and cognitive science with studies of student achievement provides educators with unprecedented knowledge. This research provides guidance for practical applications about planning curriculum, classroom climate, and instruc¬tion to best support the best social, emotional, and cognitive development in our students.

Key Understandings from Neuroscience

STRATEGIES suggested by Neuroscience Research to Attempt to Get the Human Brain to do Unnatural Things

The mammalian brain developed adaptations to promote survival of the individual animal and the species. We can understand the survival value, for animals in unpredictable, uncontrollable environments, of attention filters most alert to change and for perceived threat to be the strongest influence on the brain’s output directing centers.

In most brain systems, the human brain has not evolved much beyond that of other mammals. The human brain has not evolved to the full voluntary control of attention, information processing priorities, and output response to perceived threat. There are no inherent neural circuits for the skills of reading, writing, or memorizing large quantities of rote information. To motivate the effort needed to push the human brain beyond its design, successful educators have used a variety of strategies.

Neuroscience research now adds further insights into our understanding of the brain’s blueprint of prime directives, predictable responses, and strongest motivators. This growing knowledge can help guide planning and strategies to promote the unnatural, but essential cognitive, social, and emotional processing and knowledge acquisition needed for personal and professional fulfillment now and in the 21st century.

• The brain functions to promote survival of the animal and the species. To do so, the human brain has evolved to seek patterns and pleasure.

• The brain constantly changes; it adapts and improves in response to environment and experience through a process known as neuroplasticity.

• Attention involves the involuntary intake of sensory input into the brain through an intake filter programmed to give priority to change or novelty.

• Input interpreted as potentially threatening blocks intake of other information.

• Novelty and curiosity promote attention; prediction sustains it.

• Emotions influence where new information is processed in the brain. For learning to become memory it must be directed through the emotional filter (amygdala) along the route to the reflective, higher brain – the prefrontal cortex.

• High stress results in information transport to the lower, reactive brain where the behavioral responses are limited to fight/flight/freeze.

• The brain is “wired” to stop expending effort when experience predicts a low prob¬ability of success.

• Motivation from positive experiences is necessary to overcome the brain’s resistance to applying effort when it has low expectation of reward.

• Expectation of pleasure motivates attention, effort and memory. Dopamine release “fuels” pleasure.

• Students are more motivated when they WANT to LEARN what they HAVE to learn.

• Goals that are clear and desirable promote attention, motivation, effort, and reduce stress.

• Effort increases when there is awareness of one’s incremental progress toward a desired goal.

• Encoding new information in short-term (working) memory requires pattern recog¬nition. Short-term memory encoding is enhanced through activation of prior knowl¬edge and reduction of cognitive load interference.

• The brain is designed to perceive and generate patterns. Learning is most successfully preserved and retrieved when students understand the informa¬tion well enough to recognize relationships shared by separate memory networks.

• Long-term memory and understanding requires active “mental manipulation” by the learner.

• Mental manipulation that uses new learning in a variety of modalities promotes the growth of connections that preserve the learning as long-term memory (neuroplastic¬ity).

• When the brain makes predictions and receives timely corrective feedback, neuroplasticity promotes rewiring of faulty memory networks and strengthening of accurate ones.

• Evidence of student understanding is revealed when students apply their learning across disciplines and can transfer learning to new situations.

• The Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) controls “executive functions” (e.g., planning, organi¬zation, critical analysis, metacognition), and constructs conceptual networks needed for memory preservation/retrieval for future

Reaching Attention:
The Reticular Activating System

Attention involves the involuntary intake of sensory input into the brain through an intake filter programmed to give priority to change or novelty.

Reach students by making sure the information they need to learn passes through the brain’s sensory filter – the Reticular Activating System (R.A.S)

The Reticular Activating System (RAS) which is in the lower part of the posterior brain filters all incoming stimuli and makes the “decision” as to what people attend to or ignore. Information constantly comes into the brain from the body’s sensory receptors. At any given moment we are experiencing sights, sounds, smells, tastes and tactile input. It is impossible for us to be consciously aware of all of this sensory information. Therefore the brain has a filter (the RAS) that selects the sensory information to which we consciously attend.

How does the RAS select which information passes through the filter to gain access to the conscious brain? What are the criteria?

The RAS first prioritizes novel stimuli. If there is a change in the environment, the related sensory input will likely pass through the RAS.

The novelty that receives the highest priority is threat. If the RAS senses that the change in the environment is a source of threat, the related sensory input will pass through the RAS at the expense of other stimuli

How can educators influence what the RAS selects?

REDUCE THREAT: reduce any elements of perceived threat in the environment. For a student, threat can come in many forms, both subtle and overt. Threat can take the form of the grumpy face of a teacher, the fear of making a mistake in front of one’s peers, the anxiety of anticipating that a lesson will be too challenging.

STIMULATE CURIOSITY: capitalize on the RAS’s preference for novel stimuli to provoke curiosity. If a student is authentically curious about what a teacher has to share, attention and focus will follow.

PREDICTION:
After curiosity has provoked, students will sustain attention if they are asked to predict what the curiosity stimulating sight, sound, object, statement, picture, question, etc. has to do with the lesson.
It is important that all students make predictions. To make their predictions powerful each student needs to “bet” on his/her prediction by writing it down with a dry erase pen on an individual white board, writing on a “magic pad” and holding the prediction up, or responding on a clicker.

Strategies that Provoke Curiosity & Prediction to Promote Attention and Sustain Focus

• Music can be played as students enter the class
• Costumes related to the lesson can be worn by the teacher
• Speaking in a different voice (cadence, volume) can catch students by surprise
• Moving in a different way can be unexpected. For example, a teacher can walk backwards before a lecture. This could relate to topics such as: foreshadowing of negative events in literature, “backward” analysis or hindsight about events leading up to discoveries, historical events, or negative numbers.
• Varying the color of the paper, font, and spacing in a given text can spark attention
• Suspenseful Pause: a significant pause before saying something important builds anticipation as the students wonder what you will say or do next
• Alterations in the classroom such as a new display on a bulletin board promotes curiosity

Educators can advertise upcoming lessons in a similar way. The goal is to provoke curiosity of what’s to come. This can be done using a variety of both high and low-tech techniques.
• Posting photographs related to an upcoming lesson in the days leading up to the lesson
• Telling a story relating to an upcoming lesson
• Creating a powerpoint of images related to an upcoming lesson
• Create a video advertisement using “Animoto.com”

How can key points be emphasized throughout a lesson?

The above suggestions are often used at the outset of a lesson to alert students’ attention the fact that something new and important is being introduced. Throughout a lesson however the teacher is usually presenting information that represents varying degrees of importance. How can the teacher alert students to the most important information?
• Color: The teacher uses a set of colored markers when writing notes on the board. Green could represent that a piece of information is important, yellow could represent even more importance, and red could represent the most important “take home message”. The students will also use colored pens or pencils to write their notes. This system also helps students when reviewing information later.
• Hat: During an oral presentation, when notes are not being used, a teacher could wear a hat and turn the bill of the hat in different directions to indicate levels of importance.

Things to consider when planning a lesson geared toward reaching and sustaining student attention and engagement:
• Will your information get through the students’ RAS filters (low stress – high curiosity/interest)?
• In planning your instruction consider: Does the RAS input signal danger?
• What will arouse curiosity?
• How will all students predict the links between the cause of their curiosity and the topics of the lesson? How will they “bet” on their predictions?

Links to the free resources below including multiple articles, videos, webinars, powerpoints, and free book chapters all available through my website www.RADTeach.com

TEDx Video Dr. Judy Willis Feb 1, 2012 http://bit.ly/wlxLIC Topic “From Neuroscience Lab to the Classroom”

Dr. Judy Willis Edutopia’s ‘Big Thinkers on Education’ http://www.edutopia.org/big-thinkers

EDUTOPIA Staff Blogger View All Posts
Edutopia Blogger home page: http://www.edutopia.org/spiralnotebook/judy-willis
Blog Feed Link: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/19536/feed

Archived “Ask Dr. Judy” ASCD Webinar Series http://bit.ly/Dr_Judy_Webinars

Books by Judy Willis, M.D.

All ASCD books have several free chapters and downloadable study guides. Use
direct links from my website www.RADTeach.com or www.ASCD.org “publications”.

Research-Based Strategies To Ignite Student Learning: Insights from a Neurologist/Classroom Teacher, ASCD 2006.

Teaching the Brain to Read: Strategies for Improving Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension ASCD 2008

Brain-Friendly Strategies for the Inclusion Classroom, ASCD 2007

Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results, ASCD 2010 Free chapters and study guide download at:
http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108073.aspx

Inspiring Middle School Minds: Gifted, Creative, Challenging. Great Potentials Press, 2008

How Your Child Learns Best: Brain-Based Ways to Ignite Learning and Increase School Success. Foreword by Goldie Hawn. Sourcebooks: 2008

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